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The history of scuba diving is closely linked with the history of scuba equipment. By the turn of the twentieth century, two basic architectures for underwater breathing apparatus had been Scuba diving into the sea hawaiian shirt pioneered; open-circuit surface supplied equipment where the diver’s exhaled gas is vented directly into the water, and closed-circuit breathing apparatus where the diver’s carbon dioxide is filtered from exhaled unused oxygen, which is then recirculated, and oxygen added to make up the volume when necessary. Closed circuit equipment was more easily adapted to scuba in the absence of reliable, portable, and economical high-pressure gas storage vessels.

By the mid twentieth century, high pressure gas cylinders were available and two systems for scuba had emerged: open-circuit scuba where the diver’s exhaled breath is vented directly into the water, and closed-circuit scuba where the carbon dioxide is removed from the diver’s exhaled breath which has oxygen added and is recirculated. Oxygen rebreathers are severely depth-limited due to oxygen toxicity risk, which increases with depth, and the available systems for mixed gas rebreathers were fairly bulky and designed for use with diving helmets. The first commercially practical scuba rebreather was designed and built by the diving engineer Henry Fleuss in 1878, while working for Siebe Gorman in London. His self-contained breathing apparatus consisted of a rubber mask connected to a breathing bag, with an estimated 50–60% oxygen supplied from a copper tank and carbon dioxide scrubbed by passing it through a bundle of rope yarn soaked in a solution of caustic potash, the system giving a dive duration of up to about three hours. This apparatus had no way of measuring the gas composition during use. During the 1930s and all through World War II, the British, Italians and Germans developed and extensively used oxygen rebreathers to equip the first frogmen. The British adapted the Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus and the Germans adapted the Dräger submarine escape rebreathers, for their frogmen during the war. In the U.S. Major Christian J. Lambertsen invented an underwater free-swimming oxygen rebreather in 1939, which was accepted by the Office of Strategic Services. In 1952 he patented a modification of his apparatus, this time named SCUBA (an acronym for “self-contained underwater breathing apparatus”), which became the generic English word for autonomous breathing equipment for diving, and later for the activity using the equipment. After World War II, military frogmen continued to use rebreathers since they do not make bubbles which would give away the presence of the divers. The high percentage of oxygen used by these early rebreather systems limited the depth at which they could be used due to the risk of convulsions caused by acute oxygen toxicity.

 

 

[LIMITED] Scuba diving into the sea hawaiian shirt

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